Women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS — and microbicides could help empower women to protect their own health. Microbicides are being developed as vaginal rings, films and tablets and as rectal gels to help prevent sexual transmission of HIV. These products are based on the same types of antiretro-viral (ARV) drugs already being used successfully to treat and prevent HIV.Download pdf (136 downloads)
Background: In South Africa, HIV prevalence among youth aged 15-24 is among the world’s highest. Given the urgent need to identify effective HIV prevention approaches, this review assesses the evidence base for youth HIV prevention in South Africa.
Methods: Systematic, analytical review of HIV prevention interventions targeting youth in South Africa since 2000. Critical assessment of interventions in 4 domains: 1) study design and outcomes, 2) intervention design (content, curriculum, theory, adaptation process), 3) thematic focus and HIV causal pathways, 4) intervention delivery (duration, intensity, who, how, where).
Results: Eight youth HIV prevention interventions were included; all were similar in HIV prevention content and objectives, but varied in thematic focus, hypothesised causal pathways, theoretical basis, delivery method, intensity and duration. Interventions were school- (5) or group-based (3), involving in- and out-of-school youth. Primary outcomes included HIV incidence (2), reported sexual risk behavior alone (4), or with alcohol use (2). Interventions led to reductions in STI incidence (1), and reported sexual or alcohol risk behaviours (5), although effect size varied. All but one targeted at least one structural factor associated with HIV infection: gender and sexual coercion (3), alcohol/substance use (2), or economic factors (2). Delivery methods and formats varied, and included teachers (5), peer educators (5), and older mentors (1). School-based interventions experienced frequent implementation challenges.
Conclusions: Key recommendations include: address HIV social risk factors, such as gender, poverty and alcohol; target the structural and institutional context; work to change social norms; and engage schools in new ways, including participatory learning.Download pdf (152 downloads)
Current approaches to HIV prevention typically target people who are identiﬁed as, or self-identify, with being at risk. In Africa, 74% of new HIV infections are among adolescent girls aged 15–19 years, and AIDS-related illnesses are the leading cause of death among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. Hundreds of millions of dollars spent on developing and testing biomedical interventions to prevent HIV in women have not succeeded in reducing HIV incidence.Download pdf (124 downloads)
Look out for trained SASA! community activists in your area who will share with you more about SASA! and norms change.