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Alcohol & substance abuse

HIV prevention
Alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour amongst young adults in a low-income community in Cape Town
Posted: Feb 13, 2017
Category: Alcohol & substance abuse

Alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour amongst young adults in a low-income community in Cape Town

Aims: The aim of the study was to explore alcohol use and risky sexual behaviour among young adults in a low-income community in Cape Town. Design and setting: The study followed a descriptive correlational design within a quantitative methodological framework. More specifically, a participatory research model was employed in collaboration with young people attending a secondary school in the participating community. Data collection: The street-intercept method was used to administer a structured questionnaire consisting of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Self-Report Risky Sexual Behaviours Scale. Findings: A key finding of this study contributes to the established body of research demonstrating a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and RSB (r ¼ 0.48; p 􀀁 0.01; N ¼ 143). Another crucial finding of the study indicates that a substantial amount of the participants are classified as either harmful drinkers (Males ¼ 20.0%; Females ¼ 17.8%) or being alcohol dependent (Males ¼ 54.3%; Females ¼ 47.9%). Conclusions: These statistics are a typical reflection of drinking behaviour in impoverished communities in Cape Town and South Africa in general. The findings display the exigency for interventions to start at both the primary and secondary school level to counter the effects and consequences of alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour among young adults in this community.

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HIV-Alcohol Risk Reduction Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Recommendations for a Way Forward
Posted: Feb 13, 2017
Category: Alcohol & substance abuse

HIV-Alcohol Risk Reduction Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Recommendations for a Way Forward

Sub-Saharan Africa bears 69 % of the global burden of HIV, and strong evidence indicates an association between alcohol consumption, HIV risk behavior, and HIV incidence. However, characteristics of efficacious HIV-alcohol risk reduction interventions are not well known. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the characteristics and synthesize the findings of HIV-alcohol risk reduction interventions implemented in the region and reported in peer-reviewed journals. Of 644 citations screened, 19 met the inclusion criteria for this review. A discussion of methodological challenges, research gaps, and recommendations for future interventions is included. Relatively few interventions were found, and evidence is mixed about the efficacy of HIV-alcohol risk reduction interventions. There is a need to further integrate HIV-alcohol risk reduction components into HIV prevention programming and to document results from such integration. Additionally, research on larger scale, multi-level interventions is needed to identify effective HIV-alcohol risk reduction strategies.

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Adolescent methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in secondary school students in Cape Town, South Africa
Posted: Jan 16, 2017
Category: Alcohol & substance abuse

Adolescent methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in secondary school students in Cape Town, South Africa

This study investigated involvement in substance use and sexual activities among adolescents in Cape Town, and specifically the associations between methampethamine use and sexual risk behaviours. Data were collected from 15 randomly selected and 15 matched schools in Cape Town via quantitative questionnaires. Students used hand-held computers (PDAs) to answer the questions. A total of 4605 grade 9 students were sampled. Male and female students were almost equally likely to have used methamphetamine at least once (13% versus 12%). Students who had used methamphetamine in the past 30 days were significantly more likely to have had vaginal, anal or oral sex than students who had never used it, to have been pregnant/been responsible for a pregnancy and to have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression analysis indicated significant associations between methamphetamine use in the past 12 months and engaging in vaginal and anal sex. Drug abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention services should incorporate the link between drugs and STI into their prevention and education strategies, especially those aimed at school-going adolescents.

 

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A Qualitative Assessment of South African Adolescents’ Motivations For and Against Substance Use and Sexual Behavior
Posted: Jan 16, 2017
Category: Alcohol & substance abuse

A Qualitative Assessment of South African Adolescents’ Motivations For and Against Substance Use and Sexual Behavior

Focus groups (N = 15 groups; eight with girls, seven with boys) with adolescents in high schools near Cape Town, South Africa were used to conduct a qualitative investigation of reported reasons for using and not using substances, and for having and not having sex. Adolescents reported Enhancement, Negative States, Social, and Aversive Social motivations for both substance use and sexual behavior. In addition, being addicted as a reason for using drugs and rape as a context for sexual behavior were frequently reported. Motivations against behaviors included Physical/Behavioral Consequences, Ethical Objections, Social Disapproval, and Activities or Future Orientation reasons. Preventive interventions should address existing motivations for and against substance use and sexual behavior to acknowledge adolescents’ experiences in context.

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Gender, peer and partner influences on adolescent HIV risk in rural South Africa
Posted: Jan 16, 2017
Category: Alcohol & substance abuse

Gender, peer and partner influences on adolescent HIV risk in rural South Africa

Background and methods: In preparation for a school-based intervention in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, a cross-sectional survey of potential HIV risk factors in youth aged 14–17 (n = 983) was conducted. Results: Boys were significantly more likely than girls to report lifetime sexual activity (37.7% v. 13.8%, P < 0.01). Among boys and girls, 46.1% reported condom use at last sex. Discussion of condom use with a partner was the strongest predictor of condom use (boys, odds ratio (OR) = 7.39; girls, OR = 5.58, P < 0.0001). Age was independently associated with sexual activity for boys (OR = 1.49, P < 0.0001) and girls (OR = 1.74, P = 0.02). For boys, perceptions of male peer behaviour were associated with both ever having participated in sexual activity (OR = 1.48, P < 0.01) and condom use at last sex (OR = 1.79, P < 0.01). Girls who equated condom use with having numerous partners were more likely to use them. Among boys, results challenged some expected gender beliefs: support for girls’ initiative in relationship formation and refusal of sex were significant predictors of sexual activity. Among girls, higher pregnancy risk perception (OR = 1.32, P = 0.02) and knowledge (OR = 4.85, P = 0.055) were associated with sexual activity. Conclusions: Creating more gender equitable norms can reduce HIV risk behaviours. HIV prevention interventions should build on existing gender equitable beliefs, and work to promote others, including sexual communication and negotiation skills, and modelling of positive peer norms.

 

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